1. Prevent respiratory infection. (Prone to infection due to immunosenescence; PNA, URTI)
2. Obtain influenza and pneumonia vaccines. (The immune system is not keen to signal that something is wrong in the body; vaccines such as for PNA and influenza could easily affect one previously exposed to virus).
3. Avoid exposure to respiratory infection.
4. Seek medical attention promptly for signs of respiratory infection (such as cough and fever; report simple manifestations).
5. Report changes of sputum (Change in sputum may signal an abnormality.)
6. Regular deep breathing exercises (Muscles of the lungs are not that elastic already; prone to develop COPD; expel CO2; prevent retention and impediment in breathing)
7. Smoking cessation or avoidance of cigarette smoking (Instruct the ill effects of smoking; quitting is done gradually not abruptly; could not promote effective breathing; avoid passive smokers)
8. Provide proper room ventilation.
9. Adequate nutrition (Prone to develop influenza; provide humid air)
10. Instruct patient to turn, cough and deep breathe every 2 hours. (Prevent hypoxia to cells)
11. Monitor rate, depth, and rhythm of respiration, coloring, coughing pattern, blood gasses and mental status. (Increased rate and shallow breathing may indicate obstruction; normal rhythm-inhale, exhale, inhale; color of skin speaks of tissue perfusion; bluish-cyanosis)
Lecture Notes from Mrs. Michelle Z. Jagunap, RN. July 2007. Lecture on Promotion of Effective Breathing and Circulation in the Elderly. St. Paul University Iloilo-College of Nursing. Philippines
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